Scoliosis has no single cause, and can appear very differently in each individual case. While idiopathic scoliosis is the most common form of the disease to affect patients, there are many ways in which scoliosis can develop, as well as endless possible variations in the placement, degree and severity of the sufferer's curve. 
In order to provide a better insight for those who have recently been diagnosed, or are just beginning to find out more about the disease, we have put together a comprehensive list which highlights the various forms of scoliosis, and how each type affects those who suffer from it:

Congenital Scoliosis

Congenital Scoliosis
This form of the disease affects individuals from birth, and is caused when the spine does not fully develop in the womb. This can occur due to one or more vertebrae failing to form properly, and can also arise due to multiple vertebrae being joined together. To find out more about congenital scoliosis, and how to spot it, click here.

Idiopathic Scoliosis

Idiopathic Scoliosis
This is the most common form of scoliosis, which usually affects young people between the ages of 10 and 18. Idiopathic scoliosis usually develops during puberty, due to the rapid growth rate of the body during this time; however, it has the potential to affect people of all ages. In cases of idiopathic scoliosis, there is no known cause for the disease, and while it varies in severity, milder curves are more common than extreme angles. To find out more about idiopathic scoliosis and how it can be treated, click here.

Early Onset Scoliosis 

Although, like congenital scoliosis, this form of the condition is usually spotted in infants and young children before the age of 10, it is considered to be a form of idiopathic scoliosis. Although curves in young children can sometimes correct themselves, without the need for additional attention, some curves may continue to progress as the child develops. Contrary to most cases of the disease, which are more likely to affect females, this form of scoliosis is more likely to affect young boys. To find out more about the young children we have treated at our clinic, visit our 4-14 results page.

Neuromuscular Scoliosis 

As mentioned previously, most forms of scoliosis occur for no particular reason; however, in cases of neuromuscular scoliosis, the disease develops due to a neurological or muscular condition. When damage to the brain or nerves occurs due to illness or injury, this can have a severe impact on the spine, as the surrounding muscles become weakened. In cases such as these, the curve is often highly progressive, which means that the symptoms of the individual's scoliosis will usually worsen over time. To find out more about this connection, read our blog about cerebral palsy and scoliosis here

Degenerative Scoliosis

Degenerative Scoliosis 1Degenerative Scoliosis 2Degenerative Scoliosis 3
This type can affect an individual who has a previous history of scoliosis, which progresses with age, and can also occur due to asymmetric degeneration, which wears through the body's facet joints and intervertebral discs. In both cases, it is usually diagnosed in adults over 50. To find out more about the effects of scoliosis in older patients, and how this can be treated, click here.

Syndromic Scoliosis 

Klippel-Feil syndrome
In cases of syndromic scoliosis, the sideways curvature of the spine occurs as part of a syndrome, such as connective tissue disorders. Syndromes which can lead to scoliosis include: Kippel-Feil, Marfan, Guillain-Barré and more.

Scoliosis Variations

Lumbar Scoliosis
As well as variations in terms of cause, scoliosis can also occur in different areas of the spine. The primary curvature types are defined as follows: 


This form of scoliosis occurs in the lower back, known as the lumbar area of the spine. While it can be linked to congenital scoliosis, lower back curves can also occur as a result of a neuromuscular condition. In most cases, however, lumbar scoliosis is identified in patients with idiopathic scoliosis. Read more about its symptoms and treatment here.


This is the most common location for scoliosis, which impacts the upper/mid section of your back. This form can occur in patients with all types of scoliosis, but is most commonly presented as a curve to the right, in female patients. Find out more about thoracic scoliosis here.

If you have identified the symptoms of these forms of scoliosis in yourself, or a loved one, you should seek additional advice straight away. To discuss your condition in further detail, or to find out more about the treatment we can provide for patents with all types of scoliosis, simply click here to get in touch.